BRITAIN BEFORE AND AFTER ROMAN EMPIRE RESEARCH:
The England of King Arthur and Britain’s Own Culture
Roman Britain was an area under the rule of the Roman Empire that was unlike the rest of the Western half. The British Isles were not conquered until later and they were not under the influence of the Roman Empire for very long, as opposed to the rest of mainland Europe that would be subject to Roman rule for quite some time. Because Roman influence did not last long in Britain, the culture of the Romans did not have the same staying power that it did in the other lands it conquered. Anglo-Saxon tribes would have a much more significant impact on the cultural development in Britain than the Romans did. Evidence of this is English as a Germanic language as opposed to French, Portuguese, Spanish, or Italian that speak the Romance languages derived from Roman Latin.
There was a void created when the Roman army drew back across the English Channel and into mainland Europe, and this vacuum allowed for the influence of other groups, specifically the Jutes of Denmark and Germanic groups the Saxons and the Angles. Early influence of these three groups was largely raids in the early 600s. These raids led to settlements in Britain, and by the beginning of the 5th century the Germanic tribes had taken control of current-day south east England, though their control did not extend outside of what is presently England. British resistance, the remaining Romans and the indigenous Britons, failed. One of the British generals who was able to secure a victory against the Germanic barbarians around 500 AD at the Battle of Mons Badonicus, Mount Badon, is said by future generations to have been the great legend King Arthur, if he ever existed.
Almost all remnants of Roman England were lost during the 5th and 6th centuries, where Anglo-Saxon society flourished. The British economy under British rule diminished, and the economy before the Roman conquest took place. The barter system replaced monetary values, as the Roman style of money was no longer accepted. Roman culture disappeared as the towns and villas established by the Roman army and people were abandoned and disappeared. This was also the first time the use of the word “England” came into use (derived from the land of the Angles). The Germanic language became the spoken vernacular in England as Romance languages disappeared with the Romans. Perhaps the most important aspect of Roman culture that disappeared was the monotheistic religion Christianity. The Anglo-Saxon paganism replaced Christianity, and it was rarely found outside of the Celts that practiced it on the outskirts and outside of England itself.
Missionaries came back to England after the 6th century to convert the Anglo-Saxon pagans to Christianity. A monk named Augustine was one of these missionaries sent to England, sent by Pope Gregory the Great himself, though he did not experience a great amount of success. Because Celts continued practicing religion, Irish missionaries also began spending time in England. It wasn’t until the mid 660s that the kings of the Germanic tribes began to accept Christianity formally and it was practiced by their subjects. The conversion to Christianity produced great results, as the literacy among the subjects greatly increased and lands soon began to urbanize. The use of monetary assets also returned along with literacy and Christianity, though because Roman Britain had been phased out, the culture that returned was something unique.
We all know the rich and lavish architectural taste of the great Romans. When Romans invaded the Britain way back in A.D 43, they started building the robust monuments which they were famous for. Many churches, Museums, Villas, statues and many more structures were constructed.
The early Romans had a very smart idea of building the resort spas for their luxury and relaxation. With this idea in mind, Romans started searching the best place in Europe that can be suitable for baths. They finally found a place which is surrounded by hills and a river (Avon) was flowing through the valley of the hills. But the question here is, How can they manage to worm up the water for Spas (baths)?
It is a natural wonder that the water gets heated up due to the Geo thermal nature of water when the water falls from high altitudes. The same natural phenomenon happened in the described place which is most suitable for the worm water resort spas. Early Romans named it as the Aquae Sulis (“The water of Sulis”) which is the modern day city in the United Kingdom named as the Bath England Hotels or the Bath city.
The Bath city has the world’s most renowned and best in class historic monuments like Roman Baths, Bath Abbey, Thermae bath spa, the Royal Crescent, the Circus and Pulteney Bridge. The Bath City took perfect shapes over the centuries under the greatest dynasties of Romans, Georgian, Norman and the British kingdom. It has now become one of the largest cities in the United Kingdom and around 3.8 million day visitors every year.
In the early 20th Century, the baths have been renovated with the latest technology as the baths have been shattered by the floods, winds, world war and so on. Tourism is the principle industry for the Bath city and there are so many service related industries coming up which lead to greater job opportunities. The Bath England Hotels became one of the best fashionable living places in the modern world and there is an exclusive museum for fashion artifacts called “Fashion Museum”.
In the end, The Bath England Hotels or the Bath city was inscribed in the “World Heritage site” by UNESCO because of it’s amazing historic marvels carved all over the city.